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Ce modèle théorique a été constitué à partir du concept de dérive des continents , qui fut développé par Alfred Wegener au début du XX e siècle. The Pacific plate, for instance, is essentially surrounded by zones of subduction (the so-called Ring of Fire) and moves much faster than the plates of the Atlantic basin, which are attached (perhaps one could say 'welded') to adjacent continents instead of subducting plates. Global Tectonics By Philip Kearey Plattektonik – Wikipedia. ????. It has generally been accepted that tectonic plates are able to move because of the relative density of oceanic lithosphere and the relative weakness of the asthenosphere. This can act on various scales, from the small scale of one island arc up to the larger scale of an entire ocean basin.[27][28][21]. The debate is still open. On 8 September 2014, NASA reported finding evidence of plate tectonics on Europa, a satellite of Jupiter—the first sign of subduction activity on another world other than Earth. sources and further reading austhrutime com. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων, tektōn "builder" or "mason") describes the large In effect, the ocean basins are perpetually being "recycled," with the creation of new crust and the destruction of old oceanic lithosphere occurring simultaneously. [29] This view however has been contradicted by a recent study which found that the actual motions of the Pacific Plate and other plates associated with the East Pacific Rise do not correlate mainly with either slab pull or slab push, but rather with a mantle convection upwelling whose horizontal spreading along the bases of the various plates drives them along via viscosity-related traction forces. In the same paper the authors admit, however, that relative to the lower mantle, there is a slight westward component in the motions of all the plates. 'pertaining to building')[1] is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3.3[2] and 3.5 billion years ago. This includes the earthquake and volcanic regions which affect certain parts of the world. However, some researchers[who?] [27][28] As oceanic lithosphere is formed at spreading ridges from hot mantle material, it gradually cools and thickens with age (and thus adds distance from the ridge). Tectonic plates are able to move because the Earth's lithosphere has greater mechanical strength than the underlying asthenosphere. The discovery of radioactivity and its associated heating properties in 1895 prompted a re-examination of the apparent age of the Earth. Alfred Wegener, being a meteorologist, had proposed tidal forces and centrifugal forces as the main driving mechanisms behind continental drift; however, these forces were considered far too small to cause continental motion as the concept was of continents plowing through oceanic crust. This distortion was recognized by Icelandic mariners as early as the late 18th century. The result is a slight lateral incline with increased distance from the ridge axis. Venus shows no evidence of active plate tectonics. Basin Analysis Principles And Application To Petroleum. [30] Therefore, Wegener later changed his position and asserted that convection currents are the main driving force of plate tectonics in the last edition of his book in 1929. Plattektonik – Wikipedia. Therefore, Heezen advocated the so-called "expanding Earth" hypothesis of S. Warren Carey (see above). In this hypothesis, the shifting of the continents can be simply explained by a large increase in the size of the Earth since its formation. Van Bemmelen later on modulated on the concept in his "Undulation Models" and used it as the driving force for horizontal movements, invoking gravitational forces away from the regional crustal doming. [8] Continental lithosphere is typically about 200 km thick, though this varies considerably between basins, mountain ranges, and stable cratonic interiors of continents. Plate movement is thought to be driven by a combination of the motion of the seafloor away from spreading ridges due to variations in topography (the ridge is a topographic high) and density changes in the crust (density increases as newly formed crust cools and moves away from the ridge). [6] The driving mechanism behind this movement is described below. By 1915, after having published a first article in 1912,[51] Alfred Wegener was making serious arguments for the idea of continental drift in the first edition of The Origin of Continents and Oceans. Tectonic studies are important as guides for economic geologists searching for fossil fuels and ore deposits of metallic and nonmetallic resources. These boundaries are discussed in further detail below. Since the early debates of continental drift, scientists had discussed and used evidence that polar drift had occurred because continents seemed to have moved through different climatic zones during the past. This theory, called "surge tectonics", was popularized during the 1980s and 1990s. ?? Tidal drag due to the gravitational force the, Other smaller deformation effects of the crust due to wobbles and spin movements of the Earth rotation on a smaller time scale. [19][20] The weakness of the asthenosphere allows the tectonic plates to move easily towards a subduction zone. [54] In this symposium, the evidence was used in the theory of an expansion of the global crust. Global plate tectonic movement. ????. This was immediately followed by a symposium in Tasmania in March 1956. [81][82] The Earth's crust is soaked with water, and water plays an important role in the development of shear zones. ??? Reconstruction is used to establish past (and future) plate configurations, helping determine the shape and make-up of ancient supercontinents and providing a basis for paleogeography. ???? However, this was unsatisfactory because its supporters could offer no convincing mechanism to produce a significant expansion of the Earth. [72], Tectonic motion is believed to have begun around 3 to 3.5 billion years ago.[73][74][why? The same is true for the enormous Eurasian Plate. plate tectonics The theories find resonance in the modern theories which envisage hot spots or mantle plumes which remain fixed and are overridden by oceanic and continental lithosphere plates over time and leave their traces in the geological record (though these phenomena are not invoked as real driving mechanisms, but rather as modulators). In reality, this question had been solved already by numerous scientists during the forties and the fifties, like Arthur Holmes, Vening-Meinesz, Coates and many others: The crust in excess disappeared along what were called the oceanic trenches, where so-called "subduction" occurred. Responding to reviews, comments from instructors and developments in the subject, the authors have significantly extended the book's breadth and restructured some sections. orogeny wikipedia. The overall pattern, defined by these alternating bands of normally and reversely polarized rock, became known as magnetic striping, and was published by Ron G. Mason and co-workers in 1961, who did not find, though, an explanation for these data in terms of sea floor spreading, like Vine, Matthews and Morley a few years later.[60]. The manifestation of this varying lateral density is mantle convection from buoyancy forces.[18]. [44], The second piece of evidence in support of continental drift came during the late 1950s and early 60s from data on the bathymetry of the deep ocean floors and the nature of the oceanic crust such as magnetic properties and, more generally, with the development of marine geology[45] which gave evidence for the association of seafloor spreading along the mid-oceanic ridges and magnetic field reversals, published between 1959 and 1963 by Heezen, Dietz, Hess, Mason, Vine & Matthews, and Morley.[46]. Global Tectonics by Philip Kearey, 2009, Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, John edition, in English [87] However, their data fail a "magnetic reversal test", which is used to see if they were formed by flipping polarities of a global magnetic field. It asserts that super plumes rise from the deeper mantle and are the drivers or substitutes of the major convection cells. [42] Supporting evidence for the idea came from the dove-tailing outlines of South America's east coast and Africa's west coast, and from the matching of the rock formations along these edges. Armed with the knowledge of a new heat source, scientists realized that the Earth would be much older, and that its core was still sufficiently hot to be liquid. ?? There are dozens of smaller plates, the seven largest of which are the Arabian, Caribbean, Juan de Fuca, Cocos, Nazca, Philippine Sea, and Scotia. Reasoning in an opposite way, the continents might have shifted and rotated, while the pole remained relatively fixed. In this current understanding, plate motion is mostly driven by the weight of cold, dense plates sinking into the mantle at trenches. This is based on the fact that rocks of different ages show a variable magnetic field direction, evidenced by studies since the mid–nineteenth century. In terms of heat transfer, the lithosphere loses heat by conduction, whereas the asthenosphere also transfers heat by convection and has a nearly adiabatic temperature gradient. References McKnight, Tom 2004. [94], The scientific theory that describes the large-scale motions of Earth's lithosphere, Driving forces related to mantle dynamics, Relative significance of each driving force mechanism, Floating continents, paleomagnetism, and seismicity zones, Mid-oceanic ridge spreading and convection, Timeline of the development of tectonophysics, "Drop of ancient seawater rewrites Earth's history: Research reveals that plate tectonics started on Earth 600 million years before what was believed earlier", "The Role of H2O in Subduction Zone Magmatism", "Myths and Legends on Natural Disasters: Making Sense of Our World", "Subduction controls the distribution and fragmentation of Earth's tectonic plates", "Caltech Researchers Use GPS Data to Model Effects of Tidal Loads on Earth's Surface", "Kinematics and dynamics of the East Pacific Rise linked to a stable, deep-mantle upwelling", "Plate Tectonics May Have Begun a Billion Years After Earth's Birth Pappas, S LiveScience report of PNAS research 21 Sept 2017", "Was Venus alive? However, based on abnormalities in plumb line deflection by the Andes in Peru, Pierre Bouguer had deduced that less-dense mountains must have a downward projection into the denser layer underneath. Internal heat conducts through the lithosphere to the Earth surface. The first time the evidence of magnetic polar wander was used to support the movements of continents was in a paper by Keith Runcorn in 1956,[43] and successive papers by him and his students Ted Irving (who was actually the first to be convinced of the fact that paleomagnetism supported continental drift) and Ken Creer. This division should not be confused with the chemical subdivision of these same layers into the mantle (comprising both the asthenosphere and the mantle portion of the lithosphere) and the crust: a given piece of mantle may be part of the lithosphere or the asthenosphere at different times depending on its temperature and pressure. Il Rombocasma, anche chiamato bacino a pull-apart (in Inglese: pull-apart basin) è un bacino strutturale in cui due faglie sovrapposte o una curva di faglia creano un'area di estensione crostale soggetta a tensione la quale fa affondare il bacino. In reality, it actually shows that the work by the European scientists on island arcs and mountain belts performed and published during the 1930s up until the 1950s was applied and appreciated also in the United States. There are essentially two main types of forces that are thought to influence plate motion: friction and gravity. A profound consequence of seafloor spreading is that new crust was, and still is, being continually created along the oceanic ridges. The outer layers of the Earth are divided into the lithosphere and asthenosphere. The greater density of old lithosphere relative to the underlying asthenosphere allows it to sink into the deep mantle at subduction zones, providing most of the driving force for plate movement. [49] This had previously been estimated by its cooling rate under the assumption that the Earth's surface radiated like a black body. The same holds for the African, Eurasian, and Antarctic plates. This page was last changed on 20 October 2020, at 19:28. ??? His paper, though little noted (and even ridiculed) at the time, has since been called "seminal" and "prescient". [55] Often, these contributions are forgotten because: In 1947, a team of scientists led by Maurice Ewing utilizing the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's research vessel Atlantis and an array of instruments, confirmed the existence of a rise in the central Atlantic Ocean, and found that the floor of the seabed beneath the layer of sediments consisted of basalt, not the granite which is the main constituent of continents. Frederick Vine Wikipedia. [25] Recent research, based on three-dimensional computer modeling, suggests that plate geometry is governed by a feedback between mantle convection patterns and the strength of the lithosphere.[26]. See more. They were published during an episode of extreme political and economic instability that hampered scientific communication. Coast Range Arc tectonics.png 522 × 246; 11 KB Coiba & Malpelo Plates and major seismic faults of Colombia.jpg 768 × 759; 476 KB Collision.PNG 453 × 518; 10 KB [15] Although subduction is thought to be the strongest force driving plate motions, it cannot be the only force since there are plates such as the North American Plate which are moving, yet are nowhere being subducted. It explains movement of the Earth's lithosphere: this is the earth's crust and the upper part of the mantle. The eight continents later re-assembled into another supercontinent called Pangaea; Pangaea broke up into Laurasia (which became North America and Eurasia) and Gondwana (which became the remaining continents). litosféra je podle této teorie rozlámána na několik částí, které se vůči sobě mohou pohybovat díky plastické astenosféře, která je pod nimi. basin analysis principles and application to petroleum. Global_plate_motion_2008-04-17.jpg ‎ (700 × 495 პიქსელი, ფაილიშ ზჷმა: 375 კბ, MIME ტიპი: image/jpeg) frederick vine wikipedia. It is thus thought that forces associated with the downgoing plate (slab pull and slab suction) are the driving forces which determine the motion of plates, except for those plates which are not being subducted. After all these considerations, Plate Tectonics (or, as it was initially called "New Global Tectonics") became quickly accepted in the scientific world, and numerous papers followed that defined the concepts: The Plate Tectonics Revolution was the scientific and cultural change which developed from the acceptance of the plate tectonics theory. However, the fact that the North American Plate is nowhere being subducted, although it is in motion, presents a problem. Hess followed Heezen, suggesting that new oceanic crust continuously spreads away from the ridges in a conveyor belt–like motion. In particular, the English geologist Arthur Holmes proposed in 1920 that plate junctions might lie beneath the sea, and in 1928 that convection currents within the mantle might be the driving force. mit J. M. Bird: Mountain belts and the new global tectonics, Journal of Geophysical Research, Band 75, 1970, S. 2625–2647 1975: Plate Tectonics. One of the first pieces of geophysical evidence that was used to support the movement of lithospheric plates came from paleomagnetism. How mantle convection directly and indirectly relates to plate motion is a matter of ongoing study and discussion in geodynamics. global tectonics by philip kearey ofiolita wikipedia la enciclopedia libre. ?? However, the numerous well-preserved impact craters have been utilized as a dating method to approximately date the Venusian surface (since there are thus far no known samples of Venusian rock to be dated by more reliable methods). The new data that had been collected on the ocean basins also showed particular characteristics regarding the bathymetry. Global Tectonics by Philip Kearey, January 2008, Blackwell Publishers edition, Paperback in English - 3 edition However, in the plate tectonics context (accepted since the seafloor spreading proposals of Heezen, Hess, Dietz, Morley, Vine, and Matthews (see below) during the early 1960s), the oceanic crust is suggested to be in motion with the continents which caused the proposals related to Earth rotation to be reconsidered. Depending on how they are defined, there are usually seven or eight "major" plates: African, Antarctic, Eurasian, North American, South American, Pacific, and Indo-Australian. The different types of plate boundaries are:[12][13]. For other uses, see GPS (disambiguation). He concluded that tidal forces (the tidal lag or "friction") caused by the Earth's rotation and the forces acting upon it by the Moon are a driving force for plate tectonics. In moderns views, gravity is invoked as the major driving force, through slab pull along subduction zones. An alternative explanation, though, was that the continents had moved (shifted and rotated) relative to the north pole, and each continent, in fact, shows its own "polar wander path". sejarah bumi wikipedia bahasa indonesia ensiklopedia bebas. Warmly praised in its first edition, particularly for its careful balance between geology and geophysics, Global Tectonics is an even better textbook in its second edition. Sykes, Isacks, and Oliver all agreed to determine the order of authorship for Seismology and the New Global Tectonics by lot after realizing it would take the hard work of all of them to stay on the leading-edge of seismological research involving plate tectonics. Two- and three-dimensional imaging of Earth's interior (seismic tomography) shows a varying lateral density distribution throughout the mantle. Wegener was not the first to note this (Abraham Ortelius, Antonio Snider-Pellegrini, Eduard Suess, Roberto Mantovani and Frank Bursley Taylor preceded him just to mention a few), but he was the first to marshal significant fossil and paleo-topographical and climatological evidence to support this simple observation (and was supported in this by researchers such as Alex du Toit). Oceanic crust is formed at sea-floor spreading centers, and continental crust is formed through arc volcanism and accretion of terranes through tectonic processes, though some of these terranes may contain ophiolite sequences, which are pieces of oceanic crust considered to be part of the continent when they exit the standard cycle of formation and spreading centers and subduction beneath continents. ??? Average oceanic lithosphere is typically 100 km (60 mi) thick;[7] its thickness is a function of its age: as time passes, it conductively cools and subjacent cooling mantle is added to its base. The South African Alex du Toit put together a mass of such information in his 1937 publication Our Wandering Continents, and went further than Wegener in recognising the strong links between the Gondwana fragments. The distinction between oceanic crust and continental crust is based on their modes of formation. Earlier theories, since disproven, proposed gradual shrinking (contraction) or gradual expansion of the globe.[4]. Magnetic stripe patterns provide a reliable guide to relative plate motions going back into the Jurassic period. Orogeny Wikipedia. Reviews of Geophysics, Band 13, S. 326–332 [83] Scientists today disagree, and think that it was created either by upwelling within the Martian mantle that thickened the crust of the Southern Highlands and formed Tharsis[84] or by a giant impact that excavated the Northern Lowlands. Global Tectonics By Philip Kearey Ofiolita Wikipedia la enciclopedia libre. The study of global seismicity greatly advanced in the 1960s with the establishment of the Worldwide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN)[53] to monitor the compliance of the 1963 treaty banning above-ground testing of nuclear weapons. One method of dealing with this problem is to consider the relative rate at which each plate is moving as well as the evidence related to the significance of each process to the overall driving force on the plate. frederick vine wikipedia. Tectonic sequence stratigraphy and dynamic geohistory. Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin: tectonicus, from the Ancient Greek: τεκτονικός, lit. 'pertaining to building') [1] is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of Earth 's lithosphere , since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3.3 [2] and 3.5 billion years ago. The discovery of magnetic striping called for an explanation. Heat from the mantle is the source of energy driving plate tectonics. Dates derived are dominantly in the range 500 to 750 million years ago, although ages of up to 1,200 million years ago have been calculated. The lithosphere is cooler and more rigid, while the asthenosphere is hotter and flows more easily. [80], Consideration of plate tectonics is a part of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and extraterrestrial life. There is debatable evidence of active tectonics in the planet's distant past; however, events taking place since then (such as the plausible and generally accepted hypothesis that the Venusian lithosphere has thickened greatly over the course of several hundred million years) has made constraining the course of its geologic record difficult. They demonstrated though that the westward drift, seen only for the past 30 Ma, is attributed to the increased dominance of the steadily growing and accelerating Pacific plate. ), suggesting that they were formed during different epochs documenting the (already known from independent studies) normal and reversal episodes of the Earth's magnetic field. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation occur along these plate boundaries (or faults). When newly formed rock cools, such magnetic materials recorded the Earth's magnetic field at the time. While the mechanism of such an impressive thermal event remains a debated issue in Venusian geosciences, some scientists are advocates of processes involving plate motion to some extent. A symposium on continental drift was held at the Royal Society of London in 1965 which must be regarded as the official start of the acceptance of plate tectonics by the scientific community, and which abstracts are issued as, In 1966 Wilson published the paper that referred to previous plate tectonic reconstructions, introducing the concept of what is now known as the ", This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 09:14. Hvis filen har blitt forandret fra utgangspunktet, kan enkelte detaljer være unøyaktige. The question particularly intrigued Harry Hammond Hess, a Princeton University geologist and a Naval Reserve Rear Admiral, and Robert S. Dietz, a scientist with the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey who first coined the term seafloor spreading. Wikipedia English-Arabic glossary . Initially, during the first half of the twentieth century, the latter phenomenon was explained by introducing what was called "polar wander" (see apparent polar wander) (i.e., it was assumed that the north pole location had been shifting through time). The division is based on differences in mechanical properties and in the method for the transfer of heat. The geometric fit between continents, such as between west Africa and South America is still an important part of plate reconstruction. Where the plates meet, their relative motion determines the type of boundary: convergent, divergent, or transform. This finding, though unexpected, was not entirely surprising because it was known that basalt—the iron-rich, volcanic rock making up the ocean floor—contains a strongly magnetic mineral (magnetite) and can locally distort compass readings. ??? It was observed as early as 1596 that the opposite coasts of the Atlantic Ocean—or, more precisely, the edges of the continental shelves—have similar shapes and seem to have once fitted together. Cool oceanic lithosphere is significantly denser than the hot mantle material from which it is derived and so with increasing thickness it gradually subsides into the mantle to compensate the greater load. ?? Look at other dictionaries: Global Positioning System — GPS redirects here. Plate tectonics requires weak surfaces in the crust along which crustal slices can move, and it may well be that such weakening never took place on Venus because of the absence of water. remain convinced that plate tectonics is or was once active on this planet. Wegener expanded his theory in his 1915 book The Origin of Continents and Oceans. plate tectonics. ], Various types of quantitative and semi-quantitative information are available to constrain past plate motions. [41] Starting from the idea (also expressed by his forerunners) that the present continents once formed a single land mass (later called Pangea), Wegener suggested that these separated and drifted apart, likening them to "icebergs" of low density granite floating on a sea of denser basalt. One of the main points is that the kinematic pattern of the movement itself should be separated clearly from the possible geodynamic mechanism that is invoked as the driving force of the observed movement, as some patterns may be explained by more than one mechanism. Many were published by European scientists and at first not mentioned or given little credit in the papers on sea floor spreading published by the American researchers in the 1960s. ofiolita wikipedia la enciclopedia libre. This process, at first denominated the "conveyer belt hypothesis" and later called seafloor spreading, operating over many millions of years continues to form new ocean floor all across the 50,000 km-long system of mid-ocean ridges. The appearance of plate tectonics on terrestrial planets is related to planetary mass, with more massive planets than Earth expected to exhibit plate tectonics. During the late 1950s it was successfully shown on two occasions that these data could show the validity of continental drift: by Keith Runcorn in a paper in 1956,[43] and by Warren Carey in a symposium held in March 1956. Dissipation of heat from the mantle is acknowledged to be the original source of the energy required to drive plate tectonics through convection or large scale upwelling and doming. For instance, parts of Scotland and Ireland contain rocks very similar to those found in Newfoundland and New Brunswick. Thus, the new mobilistic concepts neatly explained why the Earth does not get bigger with sea floor spreading, why there is so little sediment accumulation on the ocean floor, and why oceanic rocks are much younger than continental rocks. Ironically, these systematic relations studies in the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century underline exactly the opposite: that the plates had not moved in time, that the deformation grid was fixed with respect to the Earth equator and axis, and that gravitational driving forces were generally acting vertically and caused only local horizontal movements (the so-called pre-plate tectonic, "fixist theories"). orogeny wikipedia. Mars is considerably smaller than Earth and Venus, and there is evidence for ice on its surface and in its crust. The evidence for such an erstwhile joining of these continents was patent to field geologists working in the southern hemisphere. 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Conducts through the much denser rock that makes up oceanic crust was, there... Therefore most widely thought to influence plate motion driven by the weight of cold, dense sinking... From zero to 100 mm annually on the concept of continental drift was accepted! From the Ancient Greek: τεκτονικός, lit ( sial ) underlies the continental.... Encyclopedia, https: //simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Tectonics & global tectonics wikipedia, Creative Commons Alike! The Tethys Ocean such as seafloor spreading is that new oceanic crust much... The Antarctic flora and volcanic belts that directly affect much of the Earth surface very similar in structure and.... As between west Africa and South America is still a matter of intensive research discussion. Because the Earth 's solid mantle as between west Africa and South America is still an important part the! Between continents, such as Harold Jeffreys and Charles Schuchert, were outspoken critics of continental was. The event was a paradigm shift and scientific revolution. [ 56 ] rocks. Tectonics also provide a reliable guide to relative plate motions therefore, Heezen advocated so-called. Conduction and convection greatest force acting on the Ocean basins also showed particular characteristics the., and still is, the Caledonian Mountains of Europe and parts of Scotland and Ireland contain very. And stiffens to form the lithosphere for tectonic plates of the Earth 's lithosphere: this is discussed in! Translation plate tectonics is the study of the Earth 's magnetic field at the time patterns in geomorphology as... From paleomagnetism its crust 's crust continental lithosphere, each topped by its kind. Give absolute reconstructions, but these are only available back to the Earth 's lithosphere: this is a within... For an explanation is based on their modes of formation spreading was validated in the theory of 's... Lithosphere is divided into the mantle is the source of energy driving plate tectonics also. Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license in plate tectonics is the Earth and Venus, and most contain... Result is a part of the plates meet, their relative motion determines the type of boundary convergent! [ 6 ] the driving mechanism behind this movement is described below satellite data sets, calibrated with station... Been collected on the plates typically ranges from zero to 100 mm annually was no apparent mechanism for drift! Of basalt ( sial ) underlies the continental rocks lateral incline with increased distance from the impact of the and!, called `` surge tectonics '', was popularized during the 1990s, it was proposed that Martian crustal was... [ 4 ] ’ s mantle loses its internal heat with a combination of conduction!

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